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Modern society is becoming very dependent upon software. Our transport systems, financial systems, medical systems and defense systems all depend to a very large degree upon software. As a consequence the safety of many human lives and much property now depends upon the reliable functioning of software. Moreover, the fall in the cost of hardware has now made possible the development of large software systems.

Ada is a programming language of special value in the development of large programs which must work reliably. This applies to most defense applications (from which background Ada evolved) and extends to many application domains. Indeed over half the Ada programs now being developed are for non-defense applications.

This document describes the rationale for Ada 95, the revised International Standard. Ada 95 increases the flexibility of Ada thus making it applicable to wider domains but retains the inherent reliability for which Ada has become noted. Important aspects of Ada 95 include

These enhancements to Ada make Ada 95 an outstanding language. It adds the flexibility of languages such as C++ to the reliable Software Engineering framework provided and proven by Ada 83 over the past ten years.

Ada 95 is a natural evolution of Ada 83. The enhancements have been made without disturbing the existing investment in Ada 83 programs and programmers. Upward compatibility has been a prime goal and has been achieved within the constraints imposed by other requirements.

This document is in several parts. The first part is an Introduction to Ada 95; it presents a general discussion of the scope and objectives of Ada 95 and its major technical features. The second part contains a more detailed chapter by chapter account of the Core language. The third part covers the various Annexes which address the predefined environment and the needs of specialized application areas. Finally there are three appendices; Appendix X addresses the issue of upward compatibility with Ada 83 and shows that for normal programs the goal of compatibility has been achieved; Appendix Y summarizes the few changes since the two public drafts of the standard; Appendix Z summarizes the requirements and concludes that they have been met. This document will be of special value to program managers, team leaders and all software professionals with concern for the organized development of software.

Ada 95 deserves the attention of all members of the computing profession. It is a coherent and reliable foundation vehicle for developing the major applications of the next decade.

The Ada 9X Design Team,
January 1995

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Laurent Guerby